- If you go into a Polish shop you will often find a huge assortment of flours:
- Mąka żytnia – rye flour
- Mąka orkiszowa – spelt flour
- Mąka gryczana – buckwheat flour
- Mąka ziemniaczna or mąka kartoflana or skrobia – potato flour
- Mąka pszenna – wheat flour
- Mąka kukurydziana – cornmeal – maize flour
- Mąka razowa – wholemeal flour
- Mąka Grahama – wholewheat flour
- Pelne ziarno – whole grain
Rye Flour – Wholemeal Wheat Flour – Wheat Flour
Some of my recipes baked with different grains
- There is no self raising flour in Poland – Polish cooks add baking powder, which is often sold in little sachets, to flour as a rising agent.
- Polish food regulations require the use of a numerical system expressed as typ.
- Typ is expressed as grams of ash per 100 kg of flour.
- Typ is calculated as the amount of ash that remains after the complete burning of the dry mass in a sample of the product at a specified temperature.
- For example – typ 500 means that in every 100 kg of flour there is around 500g of ash.
- The higher the typ number the higher the gluten content of the wheat.
Popular Wheat Flours
- Mąka tortowa – this is a fine cake flour – typ 450 – excellent for buns, cakes and tort (gateaux or layer cake).
- Mąka krupczatka – this is a coarse ground flour – typ 450- 500 – excellent for shortcrust type pastry and crumbles.
- Mąka poznańska – typ 500 – excellent for noodles, pierogi and a sauce thickener.
- Mąka wrocławska – typ 500 – excellent for pancakes and yeast cakes.
- Mąka luksusowa – typ 550 – excellent for yeast cakes – similar to American all-purpose flour and English plain flour.
Mąka uniwersalna – typ 480 – all-purpose wheat flour
In the past in Poland to be called chleb – bread had to contain rye, either on its own or mixed with wheat or other flours.
White bread rolls – bułeczki – would be made with mąka luksusowa – typ 550.
Nowadays you can find the kind of flour best for English style wheat bread – a strong flour – Mąka chlebowa – typ 750 – but I have not used any of these yet.
Some of my recipes baked with various wheat flours
I have found that using the specified flour really does make all the difference.