Yorkshire White Bread

  • I came across recipe whilst doing some research on Yorkshire recipes.
  • It is the best white wheat loaf I have ever made!
  • Not technically a bread in Poland as it does not have any rye flour.
  • Baking it in a tin works well.


  • 450g strong bread flour
  • 1 teaspoon of salt
  • 1 teaspoon of sugar
  • 1 teaspoon dried yeast
  • 300 ml warm water
  • 1 tablespoon of sunflower oil


  • Use 4 tablespoons of the water and add the sugar and dried yeast.
  • Leave for around 10 – 15 minutes until the mixture is frothy.
  • Mix the flour and the salt.
  • Add the yeast mixture to the flour.
  • Add the rest of the water and the oil.
  • Bring it all together into a soft dough ball.
  • Knead the mixture for 10 minutes – set a timer.
  • Cover the dough and leave to prove for 1 to 2 hours or until it has doubled in size.
  • *
  • Grease an 18cm in diameter cake tin with a loose bottom.
  • Turn the dough out onto a lightly floured board,
  • Knead again for around 5 minutes.
  • Make a round shape of the dough and place into the greased tin.
  • Leave to rise again until it is doubled in size for around 1 to 1 ½ hours.
  • *
  • Pre-heat the oven to GM6 – 200°C.
  • Using a sharp knife score a cross in the top of the loaf.
  • Bake the loaf for around 20 minutes until the top is golden brown.
  • *
  • Leave to cool in the tin for around 20 minutes.


Using melted butter rather than sunflower oil might be an option – Not Tested.


  • This a very popular “bread” in Polish and is of Jewish origin.
  • In olden days this would not be called bread as it does not contain any rye flour.
  • This is made from wheat flour and is a slightly sweet loaf and is more a ‘bulka’- more a yeast cake than a bread.
  • In English books it is often called – Challah.
  • I have found several recipes and combined them.
  • The dough is enriched with eggs, milk and butter.
  • I have used honey as the sweetener as this is more traditional than sugar.
  • The dough is plaited using at least three strands.
  • A glaze of egg yolk and milk is used – but this tends to burn easily – I might try egg white next time, which I have found to be better  
  • Poppy seeds, sesame seeds or  kruszonka – (crumble mixture) is scattered over the egg glaze.


  • 550g strong or plain flour
  • 125ml milk
  • 20g dried yeast
  • 2 eggs – beaten.
  • 2 tablespoons butter – melted
  •  5- 6 tablespoons water
  • 3 tablespoons of runny honey
  • *
  • Egg yolk & 1 tablespoon of water – (I will try just an egg white next time)
  • Poppy seeds, sesame seeds or crumble mixture for topping


  • Make a starter using 3 tablespoons of the flour, the yeast, the milk and 1 tablespoon of the honey.
  • *
  • Leave until frothy and rising.
  • *
  • But the rest of the flour in a large bowl.
  • Make a well in the centre.
  • Pour in the starter.
  • Pour in the beaten egg.
  • Pour in the melted butter.
  • Pour in some of the water and start to draw the flour and other ingredients together to make a soft dough,
  • Add any more water as required.
  • Once you have a ball of soft dough move the ball onto a wooden board.
  • Knead the dough for 10 minutes.
  • Place the dough back into the bowl.
  • Cover and leave until the dough has risen and doubled in size.
  • *
  • Grease a large baking tray.
  • Divide the dough into three equal parts.
  • Roll out each piece into three strands.
  • Plait the three strands together.
  • Tuck each end under.
  • Place the loaf onto the baking tray.
  • *
  • Leave for 20-30 minutes.
  • *
  • Pre-heat the oven to GM6 – 200 C.
  • *
  • Brush the loaf with the egg yolk mixture.
  • Sprinkle with poppy or sesame seeds.
  • Bake for  25 – 30  minutes.
  • Check after 20 minutes and cover with baking paper if it starts to burn.


  • Kanapka (singular) and kanapki (plural) are the Polish for sandwich and sandwiches.
  • Kanapka comes from the French canapé (singular).
  • These are always open sandwiches.
  • In both languages the word comes from the word for sofa – with the idea of something sitting on a sofa.
  • They date from the mid 1800s.
  • They can be large sandwiches, which are the mainstay of a Polish breakfast – śniadanie or second breakfast  – drugie śniadanie (Lunch in England).
  • They can be cut into small squares or rectangles to become “finger food”  – hors d’oeuvres – starters.
  • In Polish these are called przekąski or zakąski.
  • *
  • The list of toppings is endless with: meat, fish, eggs and cheese as well as gherkins, chives, tomatoes and many other vegetables on top.
  • The bread can be buttered or not if the topping is soft such as pâté or egg mayonnaise  

Toppings Suggestions – the list is endless

  • Cream cheese
  • Yoghurt cheese
  • Cured meats 
  • Roast meats
  • Smoked sausages
  • Fish spread
  • Meat spread
  • Pâté
  • Gherkins
  • Tomatoes
  • Chives
  • Onions
  • Salad leaves
  • Yoghurt Cheese with Chives on Rye – served on Greenway plates
  • Egg Mayonnaise with slices of  kotlety –  Polish burgers and tomato – served on a vintage Pyrex plate.

Using Dried Sourdough

On a recent visit to my local Polish shop I came across packets of dried sour dough.

I had never seen these before and bought a couple to try them out.

There was a recipe printed on the back of the packet and this is what I used.









  • I have noticed many Dr. Oetker products in Poland and in England.
  • I thought the company name was made up but have found this is not so.
  • Doctor August Oetker was a German chemist and was one of the people who invented baking powder.
  • He started a company in 1891 and the first product sold was Bakin, which was a measured amount of baking powder to be added to 500g of plain flour when making a cake. 
  • His family still run what is now a multi-national company.


  • 150g rye flour
  • 350g strong flour
  • 1 teaspoon of granulated sugar
  • 1½ teaspoon salt
  • 1 packet of dried sourdough
  • 1 tablespoon of dried yeast
  • 400ml of lukewarm water (approx)
  • *
  • 2 tablespoons of sunflower oil
  • 2 tablespoons of seeds eg – sesame, linseed, caraway
  • *
  • 1 teaspoon of sesame or caraway seed
  • 1 teaspoon of plain flour
  • 1 teaspoon of water


  • In a large bowl mix the rye flour, strong flour, sugar, dried sour dough and the yeast.
  • Slowly add the water to get a soft dough that you can knead.
  • Knead dough for 10 minutes, set a timer.
  • Cover the dough – a shower cap is good – and leave in a warm place to rise.
  • This could be for an hour or more.
  • *
  • Line a long Continental style loaf tin – approx 10 by 30cm.
  • Use a single sheet and push the paper into the corners.
  • *
  • Add the oil and seeds to the risen dough and mix well in.
  • Knead to a smooth dough for 10 minutes.
  • *
  • Push the dough into the tin and smooth flat.
  • Brush the top with water, seeds and flour.
  • Cut slashes with a knife in the top.
  • Cover and leave for an hour or more to rise.
  • *
  • Pre-heat the oven to GM7 – 220°C.
  • Bake for 15 minutes.
  • Lower the temperature to GM5 – 190°C.
  • Bake for 30 minutes.
  • Leave to cool in the tin.


Wholemeal Bread

  • Whilst doing some research on old Yorkshire recipes, I came across this one for a wholemeal loaf.
  • I used wholemeal spelt flour.
  • It is so easy and quick to make and the result is wonderful.
  • The original recipe was for a much larger amount – I have cut it down.
  • Milk is used in this recipe and I think this is why it is so good.
  • There is no kneading or shaping.
  • However you have to bake it in a tin.
  • It has a super crunchy crust.


  • 500g wholemeal spelt flour
  • 15g of dried yeast
  • 1 teaspoon of granulated sugar
  • 125ml of lukewarm water
  • 400ml of lukewarm milk
  • ½ teaspoon of salt


  • Mix the yeast and sugar with the lukewarm water.
  • Leave it to start frothing.
  • Put the flour into a large bowl.
  • Make a well in the centre.
  • Stir in the yeast mixture and some of the lukewarm milk.
  • Leave it for 10 minutes.
  • *
  • Beat in more of the milk to give a stiff batter.
  • Add the salt and beat some more.
  • Cover and leave to rise in a warm place for an hour.
  • *
  • Pre-heat oven to GM6 – 200°C.
  • Very well grease a 20 cm diameter baking tin.
  • Using a large spatula put the dough into the tin.
  • Leave for 20 minutes.
  • Bake for 40 – 45 minutes.


Oatmeal Bread

  • I have been doing lots of yeast baking recently and came across this recipe.
  • It is adapted from – Favourite Lancashire Recipes compiled by Dorothy Baldcock, Published by J. Salmon Ltd.
  • It is a very delicious and easy to make soft bread.
  • This amount makes two cobs.
  • For centuries oats have been used as a stable food in the hilly areas of the North of England.


  • 250g oatmeal – or blitzed rolled oats
  • 300ml of milk
  • *
  • 1 teaspoon of granulated sugar
  • 2 tablespoons of fresh yeast or 1 tablespoon of dried
  • 50ml of water
  • *
  • 350g strong flour
  • 2 teaspoons of salt
  • 50g melted butter
  • *
  • Extra oatmeal for dusting


  • Put the oatmeal and milk in a bowl and leave to soak for 30 minutes.
  • Dissolve the sugar in warm water and add the yeast.
  • Leave in a warm place for about 10 minutes until it starts to froth.
  • In a large bowl mix together the soaked oatmeal, flour, salt and melted butter.
  • Add the yeast and mix until you have a soft dough.
  • Turn the dough onto a lightly floured surface and knead for about 10 minutes (set a timer!).
  • The dough should be soft and pliable.
  • Shape into a ball, cover (a disposable shower cap is good) and leave to rise until doubled in size.
  • *
  • Knock back and knead for 2-3 minutes.
  • Shape into two round cobs and place on a lightly floured sheet.
  • Cover and prove again until doubled in size.
  • *
  • Pre-heat the oven to GM8 230°C.
  • Brush tops with milk and sprinkle with oatmeal.
  • Bake in the centre of the oven for about 25 minutes.
  • Leave to cool on a wire rack.

Zakwas – Sourdough

I have been on a long quest to find out how to make a really good sourdough bread.

I have make various rye bread versions, the easiest being a no knead version.

What I wanted was a recipe that used a sourdough starter, zakwas – in Polish,  for a wheat flour loaf that was a “classic” shape.

I wanted a loaf that looked right, tasted good and had a lovely crispy or chewy crust.

Every book or article that I read had loads of advice much of it contradictory.

I tried different methods with different degrees of success and several complete failures!  Sometimes I knew what had gone wrong sometimes I just did not know.

I was getting the taste most of the time but getting the shape without an exploding crust was more difficult.

I kept wondering how my grandmother and others in generations past had made this type of bread with ease without the aid of books, articles and videos found on the internet.

The best advice came from two sources – the book – all you knead is Bread by Jane Mason and several YouTube videos by Tomek Lach – these are in Polish.

  • I am now writing up the results of many months of baking trials.
  • Timing given in the book are often not enough – depends on many factors.
  • I have found that leaving the refreshed starter or the dough for hours longer – even overnight, works.
  • My latest loaf tastes wonderful, the crust is lovely, the shape is nearly right.
  • I am hoping that next time it will be spot on!

Sourdough starter – zakwas

  • To make this you put 50g of rye flour and 50ml of water into a large glass preserving jar on day 1 and stir, cover and leave for 24 hours.
  • On days 2, 3, and 4 you repeat this.
  • On Day 5 it is ready to use.
  • Or you can keep it in the fridge – topping up once a week with a couple of spoons of flour and water.

Day 1 – refreshing the starter


  • 3 tablespoons of starter
  • 60g of wheat flour
  • 3 tablespoons of water


  • Mix the ingredients together to make a thick paste.
  • Add more water if needed.
  • Place into a bowl and cover – shower caps are good for this.
  • Leave for around 12 hours at least – often I have make this in the morning and then leave it at room temperature or in the fridge overnight.

Day 2 – making the dough


  • Mixture from day 1
  • 300g of strong wheat flour
  • 200ml of water (may need more)
  • 1¼ teaspoons of salt


  • Mix all the ingredients together to form a soft dough.
  • More water may be needed – a wetter dough may be harder to work but better in the long run.
  • Place on a floured board.
  • Knead for 10 minutes (set a timer).
  • Try not to add much extra flour.
  • Form into a ball and place in a bowl.
  • Cover and allow to rest for 1 hour.
  • *
  • Pretend the dough is a clock face-pull a piece of dough out at noon, stretch and fold it back.
  • Repeat going around the clock face.
  • Cover it again and leave to rest for 1 hour.
  • Repeat this resting – pulling – resting twice more.
  • That is 4 rest and 3 pulls in all.
  • *
  • To shape the dough put it gently on to just a very lightly floured surface.
  • Try to use as little extra flour as possible.
  • Stretch and fold the dough to get a round ball shape.
  • Tucking the dough into the the base of the roll with your fingers.
  • Place in a proofing basket
  • I have found it is better to place a cotton or linen floured napkin over the surface.
  • This makes it easier to turn out the risen dough.
  • I now have a special circular piece of cotton specially for this.
  • It is best to wash this without the use of fabric conditioner or perfumed detergent.
  • Place into a large plastic bag or use a shower cap to cover.
  • *
  • Allow to rise until it has grown in size by 1½ times.
  • This can take 2-3 hours or even longer – depends on the heat in the kitchen.
  • *
  • Pre-heat the oven to GM 8 – 230°C.
  • Prepare a baking sheet by lining it with greaseproof paper and sprinkling on semolina or flour.
  • Gently tip out the risen dough onto the sheet.
  • Cut three long slashes in the top with a sharp knife.



  • Bake for 10 minutes then turn the heat down to GM6  – 200°C.
  • Bake for another 20 minutes.
  • Check the base sounds hollow.
  • Leave to cool completely on a wire rack.


Different wheat flours

You can alter the type and proportions of wheat flour and can use whole-wheat or wholemeal flour.

I am trying different versions out and have made a loaf with 60g of whole-wheat in the refreshed starter and 150g whole-wheat and 150g strong flour for the dough. It was a little heavier but tasted super.

There are many  variations to try out!


Poolish Rye Bread

I recently posted about a wheat bread I made using the Poolish method.

As this was such success I thought I would try out a Poolish recipe this time using rye flour.

There are lots of steps and it takes most of the day, so it is best made when you are at home with other things to do in between.

A Poolish is a pre-ferment usually combing equal parts of flour and water (by weight) with some yeast.

This recipe is adapted from Bake it Better  – Bread – edited by Linda Collister, Hodder & Stoughton, 2015.

Ingredients – Poolish

  • 250g rye flour
  • 150g strong flour
  • 15g fresh yeast (7g dried)
  • 300ml  lukewarm water
  • 1/4 teaspoon of sugar

Method – Poolish

  • Mix the yeast, water and sugar in a jug
  • Leave for about 5 minutes.
  • Make a well and pour in the yeast mixture.
  • Bring it all together to make a thick lump free mixture.
  • Cover the bowl (a shower cap is good)
  • Leave at room temperature to rise for about 4 hours.

Ingredients – Dough

  • Poolish
  • 200g rye flour
  • 100g strong flour
  • 125ml lukewarm water
  • 2 teaspoons of caraway seeds
  • ½ tablespoon of salt
  • *
  • Milk to brush loaves
  • Extra caraway seeds for sprinkling on loaves

Method – Dough

  • To the Poolish add the water and mix to make a smooth batter.
  • Mix the flours and the salt.
  • Add the flour and salt to the Poolish  and mix.
  • You will have a soft and heavy, sticky dough.
  • Leave uncovered to rest for 5 minutes.
  • *
  • Add a little water if it feels too stiff.
  • Turn out onto a lightly floured board.
  • Knead the dough for 10 minutes (set a timer).
  • *
  • Put back into a large bowl and cover (a shower cap is good).
  • Leave to rest and rise for 1 hour.
  • *
  • Knock back the dough.
  • Roll into a ball.
  • Cover and leave for 1 hour.
  • *
  • Turn out onto a lightly floured board.
  • Knead a couple of times.
  • Divide into two.
  • Shape each piece into a ball.
  • Cover loosely with a dry tea towel and leave for 10 minutes.
  • *
  • Line a baking sheet with grease proof paper.
  • Knead and fold and shape each ball into an oval.
  • Place the two pieces on the baking sheet.
  • Cover loosely and leave to prove for 1 hour.
  • *
  • Pre-heat the oven to GM7 220°C
  • Put a roasting tin at the bottom of the oven to heat up.
  • *
  • Cut 3 slashes in the top of each loaf.
  • Brush lightly with milk or water.
  • Sprinkle with caraway seeds.
  • Put the loaves in the oven.
  • Quickly pour a glass of water into the roasting tin (the steam helps to give a good crust).
  • Close the door and bake for around 10 minutes.
  • Reduce to GM6 2O0°C  and continue baking for 25 minutes
  • Leave to cool on a wire cake rack.

Poolish Bread

A Poolish is a pre-ferment usually combing equal parts of flour and water (by weight) with some yeast.

The origin of the term Poolish is that it is named after a method used by Polish bakers around 1840 when it was brought to France.

However – Poolish is an old English version of Polish and this term seems to be most used in France where polonais is the word for Polish – strange!

Fermentation is carried out at room temperature for some time – long enough for the Poolish to bubble up and increase its volume. This can take anywhere from 3 to 24 hours.

Using  Poolish is said to give a light texture to the dough, develop a sweetness of flavour and also give a good colour in the crust.

This recipe is adapted from Bake it Better  – Bread – edited by Linda Collister, Hodder & Stoughton, 2015.

The original amounts made two very big loaves so I the second time I made this,  I cut it down, to make two small loaves – these are the instructions below.

Ingredients – Day One

  • 25g wholemeal flour
  • 150g strong flour
  • 10g fresh yeast (5g dried)
  • 175ml water
  • 1/4 teaspoon of sugar

Method – Day One

  • Mix the yeast, water and sugar in a jug
  • Leave for about 5 -10 minutes.
  • Mix the two flours together in a bowl.
  • Make a well and pour in the yeast mixture.
  • Bring it all together to make a thick lump free mixture.
  • Cover the bowl (a shower cap is good)
  • Leave a room temperature for 20 – 24 hours.

Ingredients – Day Two

  • Poolish from day one
  • 125ml water
  • 250g strong flour (maybe a little more)
  • ½ tablespoon of salt

Method – Day Two

  • To the Poolish add the water and mix to make a smooth batter.
  • Add 125g of the flour and mix it in by hand.
  • Add the salt.
  • Gradually add the rest of the flour until you have a soft but not sticky dough.
  • Add more flour if necessary.
  • Knead the dough for 10 minutes (set a timer).
  • Put back into a large bowl and cover (a shower cap is good).
  • Leave to rise till double in size – around 3 hours.
  • When it looks nearly ready – line a baking sheet with grease-proof paper.
  • Knock back the dough with your knuckles to deflate it.
  • Cut the dough into two pieces.
  • Leave them to rest for 5 minutes.
  • Knead each piece for 1 minute.
  • Shape each piece and put it on the baking sheet.
  • Dust them lightly with some flour.
  • Cover loosely and leave to prove for 1 to 1½ hours.
  • Pre-heat the oven to GM7 220°C
  • Put a roasting tin at the bottom of the oven to heat up.
  • Cut 3 slashes in the top of each loaf (oops I forget the 2nd time!).
  • Put the loaves in the oven.
  • Quickly pour a glass of water into the roasting tin (the steam helps to give a good crust).
  • Close the door and bake for around 30 minutes.
  • Leave to cool on a wire cake rack.

Rye Scones

This recipe is a cross between an English scone and soda bread.

I used this recipe with spelt flour and it was a huge success.

I now tried it out with rye flour using equal amounts of rye to plain flour.

In Poland you might call these babeczki – little buns or bułeczki – little bread buns.


  • 125g rye flour
  • 125g plain flour
  • 1 tablespoon of baking powder
  • 1/4 teaspoon of salt
  • 30g of demerara or granulated sugar  & 1/2 tablespoon
  • 80g of sultanas or raisins
  • 65g butter – chilled and diced
  • 2 tablespoons of yoghurt & milk to make 125ml
  • 1 egg


  • Line a baking sheet with greaseproof paper.
  • Preheat the oven to GM7 – 220°C.
  • Mix the flours, baking powder and salt together.
  • Add the butter and mix in with the flour to make breadcrumbs.
  • Add the 30g of sugar.
  • Add the sultanas or raisins.
  • Lightly mix the egg into the yoghurt/milk mixture.
  • Make a well in the flour mixture and pour in the egg mixture.
  • With a knife work the mixture together to make a damp rough ball.
  • Turn the ball of dough on the the baking sheet.
  • Form into a flattened disc around 20cm in diameter.
  • Sprinkle with the 1/2 tablespoon of sugar.
  • Deeply score the disc into eight sections.
  • Bake for 15 – 20 minutes until golden and firm.

They tastes delicious freshly baked with butter & the next day slightly warmed or toasted.

Served on Elizabethan Carnaby from the 1960s.


These were so delicious I made them again but instead of sultanas used –

  • 80g chopped dried apricots






  • 80g dried cranberries






All versions are super!