Żurek – Sour Rye Soup

Sour is a word to describe a lot of Polish food – it is a taste well-loved by Poles!

Often this sour comes from lactic acid which is made during fermentation by Lactobacillus bacteria to produce such foods as: gherkins, sauerkraut, sourdough, soured cream, soured milk and yoghurt.

Żurek is a soup made with sour rye (zakwas) as a base.

Water is added to rye flour or rye bread and it is allowed to ferment for a few day.  In olden times this soup was often made on the same day as rye bread was being made.

Nowadays you can buy  żurek starter or zakwas in the Polish supermarkets and this is what I use, (one day I will make my own) and it tastes very good.

My mother never made this soup and in fact I had not heard of it until my Polish cousin’s daughters worked in a Polish restaurant in London in the 1990s and I had some there.

It is often cooked with smoked bacon and Polish sausage – kiełbasa – and then served with quartered or chopped hard boiled eggs.

Some people serve this at the Easter breakfast using the sausage and hard-boiled eggs which have been blessed on Easter Saturday.

Ingredients

  • 1 bottle of Żurek concentrate
  • 1 large onion
  • 3 medium boiled potatoes (waxy type can be better but not essestial)
  • 2 medium boiled carrots.
  • 50 – 100g of smoked bacon
  • 100-150g of Polish sausage*
  • 1 bay leaf
  • 4 peppercorns & 3-4 allspice grains
  • 4-5 tablespoons of soured cream(optional – but worth it)
  • Season as necessary but the bacon and sausage usually provide enough salt.

****

Hard boiled eggs to serve – at least one per person

*I used Torunska but you can use any sort  – even hot dog type sausages – a sausage called biały (white)(one that is boiled normally) is often used and this gives another name to the soup – biały barszcz – white barszcz (red barszcz being beetroot soup)

Method

  • Peel the carrots and parboil them whole.
  • Parboil the potatoes.
  • Once cooled, chop the carrots and potatoes.
  • Chop the onion roughtly.
  • Chop the bacon into little squares.
  • Chop the sausage into small pieces.
  • Use a large pan and add all the ingredients
  • Add water to cover the vegetables & half to three quarters fill the pan.
  • Bring to the boil, then cover the pan and simmer for a couple of hours.

Chop the hard boiled eggs into long quarters or roughly chop them.

Pour the soup into dishes and place the quarters on top or scatter the chopped egg on top.

Żurek with just vegetables

In olden times when fasting & abstinence in Lent was much more strict, many people did not eat meat or eggs in Lent.

Many lived on a very meagre diet of meatless żurek with hardy any vegetables and there was often a ceremony of burying the żurek at the end of Lent.

This recipe is not as meagre as that, it is made with lots of vegetables and served with hard-boiled eggs or rye bread croutons.

Ingredients

  • 1 bottle of Żurek concentrate
  • 1 large onion
  • 1 leeks
  • 3 medium potatoes (waxy type can be better but not essential)
  • 2-3 medium carrots
  • 2 kohlrabi*
  • 1/2 a celeriac*
  • 1 white turnip*
  • 2 parsnips*
  • 1 bay leaf
  • 4 peppercorns & 3-4 allspice grains
  • 125 – 250ml of soured cream
  • Flat-leaved parsley -small bunch chopped
  • Salt & pepper to taste
  • Juice of 1/2 a lemon – optional

*Depends on what is available – try and have at least 2 of these root vegetables & adjust the amounts to suit what you can get.

I think the sweetness in the root vegetables counteracts some of the sourness of the sour rye, so I add lots of soured cream & sometimes some lemon juice.

Hard boiled eggs to serve – at least one per person or rye bread croutons.

Method

  • For all the root vegetables, peel as necessary – you can parboil or steam them if that makes them easier to prepare.
  • Chop the root vegetables into rough cubes.
  • Chop the onion into small pieces.
  • Add all the vegetables & onion to a large pan or stockpot of water.
  • Add the żurek concentrate.
  • Add the bay leaf, allspice and peppercorns.
  • Add some of the parsley
  • Add water to cover the vegetables & half to three quarters fill the pan.
  • Bring to the boil and then simmer for around two hours until the vegetables are soft or place in a low oven for several hours.
  • Gently stir in the soured cream – whisk a little if it starts to go into lumps.
  • Season to taste.
  • Add some lemon juice to the required sourness!
  • Sprinkle in the rest of the parsley.

To serve – add the quartered or chopped hard-boiled eggs on top,  or the rye bread croutons.

 

Served in soup plates  – Glenwood by Crown Devon Fielding, Made in England.

These are the only 3 left from my Mama.

I think she must have had 8 or even 12, they are there in memories of my childhood with lots of people sitting around the table.

I have read that they were produced from 1939 -how my Mama aquired these I do not know!

Potatoes – po nelsońsku

Po nelsońsku  –  in Lord Nelson’s style –  is when mushrooms and soured cream are added to the sauce. (I have not been able to discover why this name is used.)

In the traditional version of this dish, dried mushrooms are used and are soaked overnight.

I have also made a version with dried and fresh mushrooms.

Floury potatoes such as King Edward or Maris Piper are the best for this dish.

Packets of dried mushroom in England tend to be 25g or 30g and I have used a full packet for the recipe (you can use more).

The best dried mushrooms are Boletus edulis, in Poland they are called borowik or prawdzik, in Italy porcini.

Ingredients

1 kg of floury potatoes

10 -15g of dried mushrooms

2 onions

60ml of soured cream

250 ml of milk for soaking the mushrooms & 125ml (or more) for the sauce

100g of butter for frying the onions & the sauce

2 to 3 tablespoons of plain flour

Salt & pepper

 

Method

Start the night before by preparing the mushrooms. Put the mushrooms in a jug or bowl and add around 250ml of boiling water. When this has cooled add around 250ml of milk.

Leave the mushrooms overnight.

Alternately you could start this very early in the morning and make the dish in the evening.

Boil the potatoes till nearly cooked and leave them to cool.

Slice the potatoes into around 2cm thick slices.

Strain the mushrooms from most of the liquor – saving this for the sauce.

You can chop the mushrooms into smaller pieces if you want.

Gently simmer the mushrooms in a little of the liquor for about 5 minutes.

Make a sauce by first melting 2 tablespoons of butter in a saucepan, add the flour, stir together with a wooden spoon and gently cook until you have a thick roux.

Slowly add the liquor from the soaked mushrooms and mix and heat till you have a thick sauce.

Add more milk if needed – you want a very thin pouring sauce.

Then add the soured cream and mix together.

Pre-heat the oven to GM 4 – 180°C

 

 

Halve the onions and thinly slice and then fry them till golden in some butter.

Butter a deepish ovenproof glass or ceramic dish.

Place a layer of potatoes on the bottom followed by the onions, then the mushrooms, some of the sauce and finish with a top layer of potatoes.

 

Season with salt and pepper as you go along.

Pour the rest of the sauce over the top.

Depending on the size and depth of the dish you could have more layers but always start and finsh with potatoes.

Bake in the oven for at least an hour (You can lower the temperature and leave to cook for much longer).

This goes well served with roast chicken or pork.

 

Served on Royal Doulton – Tapestry  1966 – 1988

Ingredients – Version 2

This has fewer dried mushrooms & fresh mushrooms are added.

1 kg of floury potatoes

10g of dried mushrooms

100 – 150g of  fresh mushrooms (chestnut type are good)

250 ml of milk for soaking the mushrooms & 125ml (or more) for the sauce

100g of butter for frying the onions, mushrooms & the sauce

2 onions

2 to 3 tablespoons of plain flour

60ml of soured cream

Salt & pepper

Method – Version 2

Start the night before by preparing the mushrooms. Put the mushrooms in a jug or bowl and add around 250ml of boiling water. When this has cooled add around 250ml of milk.

Leave the mushrooms overnight.

Alternately you could start this very early in the morning and make the dish in the evening.

Boil the potatoes till nearly cooked and leave them to cool.

Slice the potatoes into around 2cm thick slices.

Strain the mushrooms from most of the liquor – saving this for the sauce.

You can chop the mushrooms into smaller pieces if you want.

Gently simmer the re-constituted mushrooms in a little of the liquor for about 5 minutes.

Thinly slice the fresh mushroom caps and fry them gently in butter.

 

Mix the two types of mushrooms together.

Make a sauce by first melting 2 tablespoons of butter in a saucepan, add the flour, stir together with a wooden spoon and gently cook until you have a thick roux.

Slowly add the liquor from the soaked mushrooms and mix and heat till you have a thick sauce.

Add more milk if needed – you want a very thin pouring sauce.

Then add the soured cream and mix together.

Pre-heat the oven to GM 4 – 180°C

Halve the onions and thinly slice and then fry them till golden in some butter.

Butter a deepish ovenproof glass or ceramic dish.

Place a layer of potatoes on the bottom followed by the onions, then the mushrooms, some of the sauce and finish with a top layer of potatoes.

Season with salt and pepper as you go along.

Pour the rest of the sauce over the top.

Depending on the size and depth of the dish you could have more layers but always start and finsh with potatoes.

Bake in the oven for at least an hour (You can lower the temperature and leave to cook for much longer).

This goes well served with roast chicken or pork.

Version 3 – Less Expensive & Quicker

In Poland there are mushroom stock cubes which are very useful especially for making sauces.

Years ago I brought loads back to England, now you can find these in the many Polish food shops.

The ones I use are made by Knorr.  These stock cubes contain a small amount of dried mushroom extract.

 

Dissolve the stock cube im 250ml of  hot water, when this has cooled add around 250ml of milk.

Increase the amount of fresh mushrooms to 150 – 200g.

Follow the instructions as  for Version 2.